Thursday, December 5, 2019

Internet Privacy (1596 words) Essay Example For Students

Internet Privacy (1596 words) Essay Internet PrivacyInternet Privacy: Is theInternet as safe as everyone says?As every generation comes they bring withthem a new invention from cars to television to the telephone the basicexistence of man, in my eyes, is to advance both technologically, thusmaking life better for us all and also scientifically. Man wants to knowall we want to be able to answer all the questions out there as every daygoes by we get closer and closer to answering some of our questions. Everyday new cures for diseases are found and also new diseases are discovered,new discoveries are made in various fields, at the same time however newproblems are arising. Man in every era has depended on some formof tool to help him to his tasks whatever they may be, a tool to make thingseasier. This tool is technology; technology does not have to be the modernthoughts of computers. Technology is the science of technical processesin a wide, though related field of knowledge. That is the definition givenby The New Lexicon Websters Dictionary of the English Language. So technology can be anything as long as it helps us advance. It can beanything like a plough to help a farmer, a television to help the mediaand the telephone to help us communicate. The latest technology of the20th Century is the Internet and it has placed a great mark on our society. It is the new place to be where business can advance, people can interactworldwide at the click of a mouse and this has revolutionarily changedthe world. In the world of the Internet there are millions of members worldwideand that means it is a very profitable arena. In an area where there ismoney there are criminals and that is where the modern criminals of theworld are behind computer screens. They may be credible individuals insociety and they could also be credible corporations and organizationsthat are finding a quick way to make money and by doing this they are breakingethical rules of society (even though it is hard to determine the ethicsof the internet) and one of these crimes is the violation of the privacyof others. I have logged on to the internet and havefelt safe, like anyone should that logs on to the net, that I am the onlyone viewing my mail or cruising the net, I feel like I am the only onethat knows where I have been and that no one is tracking me. After allthe things I have just mentioned only happen in the movies, they are Enemyof the State type of things, and it could not possibly happen to you amI right? Wrong. By holding this thought one is including themselves ina large group of consumers, world-wide, who are unaware of the multitudeof information they are placing on the World Wide Web, simply by usingit as it was designed to be used. All it takes is a visit to any site toplace personal information about yourself on the internet. (Buffalo University). The best way, at least for me, to understandthe Internet is not to view it as a one way street but instead as a two-wayroad. The one way view of the internet is that it provides us with informationand entertainment, this is what many people use the internet for and thatis the one way view they maintain though it is not wrong there is moreto it. That is where the two way view comes into effect while an individualis surfing the net the people that maintain the web sites are also gettinginformation that information is on you. It is a two way street becauseyou get what you want and they get what they want, which side gets themore information is very debatable, solely on the premise on how much youtreasure your privacy. .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 , .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .postImageUrl , .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 , .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:hover , .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:visited , .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:active { border:0!important; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:active , .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145 .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u803430bf666423a62ca7014f60e8b145:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Autism 3 EssayIt is disturbing to know that one can betracked all over the World Wide Web just from their mouse clicks. Thismay be happening to many of us, our browser alone gives as away simply. Just from our browser someone who wants to can find out could probablyfind out which computer you are coming from, what software and hardwareyou are using, details of the link you clicked on, and possibly even youremail address ( This is a lot of information about usthat we may not want out there. Our browser is giving all this informationout through cookies. A cookie is a unique identifier that a web serverplaces on your computer: a serial number for you personally that can beused to retrieve your records from their databases. Its usually a stringof random looking letters long enough to be unique ( is a very bad thing that destroys the founding of privacy if you cannotsurf the Internet without half the consumer-retailing world knowing about,that is a very horrible thought. When I view a particular page that is ofinterest to me and I want to some more information on the products theyoffer I usually fill an on-site registration form, along with me so domany users of the Internet. By providing the information to the companyI am under the assumption that they will send the information I need tome and that they are under an ethical code to respect my privacy. Wellin the world of the Internet, and in this day and age ethics might as wellbe a dream. The forms we fill online may ask for basic information likemy name, address, phone number and email address and maybe my personalinterests, however the sad part is that all this information is most likelybeing gathered for marketing purposes. It is often sold to other interestedparties willing to buy my information along with those of hundreds of others,so that they may push their products upon them. There are companies emerging over theInternet that can get almost any piece of information on you that you holddear to your self. The Internet has unleashed a new beast, a beast thathas no name but that has no respect for privacy. If tomorrow morning theUnited States Postal Service announced that all mail had to be sent ina clear envelope there would be a huge ruckus. That would involveeveryone from a custodian to the president of a major organization; thisis because we all have something that is private to us that we do not wantstrangers to know about. What is very disturbing is when it comes to protectingyour privacy, banks and brokerage firms tend to squirm. By law they mustrecord Social Security number, the marker that can unlock the data in alltoo many other accounts (Forbes pg. 187). If your money isnot safe, if one knows how much money you have in this society then youare at a disadvantage. In this society I feel every thing is measured bythe contents of your bank account, to achieve the dream many work hoursand hours upon end to make ends meet and to have all their labors exposedto the whole world can be a very painful thing. While researching this paper I came acrossan interesting article done by MSNBC it was about a man named Glen Robertswho lives in Oil City which is in northwestern Pennsylvania. Mr. Robertshad obtained through legal means, thanks to the Internet and to be morespecific the electronic Congressional Record to obtain the social securitynumbers of prominent members of the United States military. He then displayedthese numbers on his site to display to the world how insecure the Internetwas. This is not some secret military document that someone hacked into,and these are not the Pentagon Papers, Roberts said. This is informationthat is put into public libraries all across the country with taxpayerdollars ( After reading the article on he MSNBC websiteI searched for Mr. Glen Roberts page and found it. From there I was ableto discover the social security numbers of many prominent members in oursociety including. General Colin L. Powell whos social security numberis 113-28-4024 and Bill Gates whos social security number is 539-60-5125. .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 , .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .postImageUrl , .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 , .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:hover , .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:visited , .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:active { border:0!important; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:active , .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056 .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc8fd49b940b42bd9e0bd58e9092c7056:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Physics of Bungee Jumping (A) EssayThese were all available from his Internet address: viewing the contents of this websiteI thought to my self if the numbers of prominent members of society areopenly available to many then what would prevent the numbers of normalcivilians from being available. Many experts agree that once you have thesocial security number of an individual you have the key to their wholelife. No safeguards are being taken to adequately protected. The Internetin my opinion is a young domain and many are taking advantage of it bybreaking strict moral and ethical values. To prove my point on how insecure the internetwas and how the privacy of others were not being protected I took the libertyof finding out what information I could find on Mark Preut. He is my Debatecoach and also American Government teacher, in one minute (I timed myself)I came up with was his address, phone number, map of the town he livedin. If I had looked on further I know I could have found more but thenI would be contradicting my self on the matter of privacy. The Internet is a dangerous place we needto be careful. It is understandable that the founding fathers did not takeinto account the invention of the Internet let alone the computer. Howeverthey did believe in a sense of privacy that sense of privacy has not beenapplied by this government. To that matter it has not been applied to anyother government which has control over events on the World Wide Web. Itis a shame there is no little or no privacy in this new world created byman, the world known as cyberspace.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

buy custom Immigration Reform in the United States essay

buy custom Immigration Reform in the United States essay United States Immigration has been, challenged all along to enact reforms since there have been many incidences of illegal immigrations into the country (Katy, 2010). Some of the proposals that have been, passed include increasing the Border Patrol officers, increasing the country's Immigration Enforcement (ICE) agents in combating smuggling operations, increasing enforcement inspectors at the ICE work site and increasing inspection resources, increasing detection officers for ICE document fraud and improving detection capability, increasing of personnel for effective conducting of inspections for contraband, drugs, and illegal immigrants at Americas ports, improving infrastructure, technology, and resources for assisting the Border Patrol and increasing resources for prosecution of human traffickers, drug smugglers, and unauthorized border crossers (Darren, 2010). These efforts have been, complimented with efforts to introduce the social security cards that will be, used as identifi cations of the legality in crossing the borders. Not later than 18 months after enacting the reforms proposal, the Social Security Administration of the country will immediately start issuing biometric security cards (Alex, 2010). These cards will be tamper-resistant, fraud-resistant, wear resistant, and machine-readable cards that will contain an electronically coded micro-processing chip and a photograph which possesses a particular biometric identifier for the card-bearer (Katy, 2010). Pros for the ID reforms The American government has a whopping thought in coming up with the social security cards normally being, handled as biometric social security card (Chris, 2010). The strategy is a fantastic idea as it is quite effective in solving the illegal immigrant problem. The card will help prevent future waves of illegal immigrant into the country because it will stop the recruitment, hiring or referral of unauthorized immigrants in Americas workplaces (Katy, 2010). Jobs have been some of the strongest points of hiding for the illegal immigrants and, therefore, the social security cards will solve this issue once and for all (Darren, 2010). The card will be of significant advantage as it will be able to provide biometric identifiers credential, allow electronic authentication capability, allow the verification of the individual locally without the need to access a biometric database, allow offline verification capability (doing away with the need for online databases running throughout, develop security features, which protect the information on the card, evelop privacy protections, which allow the user to control the person able to access information on the card and complies with biometric standards and authentication recognized by international and domestic standards organizations (Chris, 2010). The security card option will also be advantageous as it will all the individual cardholder to have control over who can access their general information as they wish, and allow them to use electronic authentication of the credential in determining their work authorization (Chris, 2010). Therefore, it is stipulated to be an excellent strategy if well applied by the government within its immigration reforms strategies (Alex, 2010). Cons of the ID reforms However, the social security cards come with considerable weaknesses as it applies in controlling the illegal immigration (Darren, 2010). For one, with the biometric national ID card provision draft bill becoming law, it will be outright that every worker in America must be fingerprinted, and introduction of a new federal bureaucracy set in place to cope with the changes (Chris, 2010). This means that it will take ages to make sure that all people within the American boundaries are, fingerprinted since the country has an extremely large population (Alex, 2010). This might take a lot of time and to be sincere, there are many people who will not access the services especially those in the remote areas (Katy, 2010). The process of registration will also create tension among the countrys population since for sure, there are millions of illegal immigrants who would not fall for the strategy and would oppose it with zeal and force (Chris, 2010). On the same note, it is a hectic process that will cost the country hundreds of billions of dollars from the registration to the creation and issuing of these cards (Katy, 2010). A civil liberties advocacy group in the country was on strong opposition of the social security card arguing with proof that this process if too expensive for the country and it might have a remarkably strong effect on the economy (Darren, 2010). On the same note, the creation of biometric national ID will not only hold as astronomically expensive, but it will also usher the government into the center of individuals lives (Chris, 2010). This is an infringement to the privacy of individuals, and it counts as bleach to the countrys constitution that supports human rights application (Alex, 2010). It is clear that all workers in the country will need a government permission slip for them to in the country, and in return, they will have to providee even the most sensitive individual information (Chris, 2010). Th e introduction of a new federal bureaucracy will also be disadvantageous as it will bring in a combination of the worst elements of the T.S.A. and D.M.V, which are not fit in the running of the respective regions. With this in mind, even with the thought and plan of having the security cards introduced in the system, there is a need for the government to strategize and consider other possible options that could sound better and more effective in the process of the immigration reforms (Katy, 2010). Instead of the introducing biometric cards that seem to have negative aspects, which could cost the country heavily, implementing strategies of handling the already illegally migrated population is better and from there start controlling the immigrations for future sake (Darren, 2010). In this case, the country will need to set the benchmarks and fortify the border enforcement capabilities as the first priorities (Chris, 2010). It will, therefore, demand the substantial increment of the number of border patrol agents. They have to be well stationed on the northern and southern borders and the number of administrators stationed at Americas ports of entry. Thorough inspections need to be conducted for contraband, drugs, and illegal immigrants (Katy, 2010). Additionally, rather than spending all this much in billions of federal dollars on security cards, it would be wiser to advance border technology. In this case, installing high-tech ground sensors on the borders of the country and eq uipping the regions with patrol officers that will be provided with technological capability of responding to activation of the ground sensors as they patrol the borders. The solution is by far more cost-effective compared to the security cards estimated hefty budget (Darren, 2010). The border might also require secure and clear two-way communication capabilities to enable the communication among all border patrol agents who conduct operations between entry ports (Chris, 2010). One more extensive strategy in the reforms to reduce the illegal immigrants might involve increasing the number of helicopters, sport utility vehicles, power boats, and portable computers. This is to help in easy tracking of drug smugglers and illegal immigrants while inside of a night vision equipment, a border patrol vehicle, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), scope trucks, Remote Surveillance Systems (RVSS), and Mobile Surveillance Systems (MSS) (Katy, 2010). With this in hand, it will be easy to reform the immigration systems and proper adjust to effective ways of handling the illegal immigrations (Darren, 2010). Buy custom Immigration Reform in the United States essay

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Cutting Operating Cost Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cutting Operating Cost - Essay Example Therefore, by cutting operating costs, Method will be able to reduce its liabilities and increase its assets. This means that if the company had been spending $200 million on expenses, and then it manages to cut this to $150, the company will be able to decrease liabilities by $50 million. This, on the other hand, will increase the assets of the company by $50 million in the form of hard cash or money in the bank. The method may decide to invest in green business activities, which may prove to be expensive initially or in the short run. In order to undertake such activities, the company might be forced to purchase new equipment or upgrade its equipment to make sure that it is able to embrace green business activities. This may prove costly in the short run. However, in the long run, this may help the company save costs and improve efficiency. For instance, when method decided to improve the efficiency of their shipping, they decided to purchase biodiesel trucks. These were additional costs to the company. However, they helped the company to save on fuel used for shipping. This is due to the fact that the trucks that use biodiesel fuel are able to get 13% more miles for each diesel gallon. Yes, I think that over the years household companies have realized that green products can help them be efficient and save costs. Research conducted in the year 2008 showed that the use of eco-friendly household products was expected to rise from 3% in the year 2008 to about 30% by the year 2013. This is a huge increase and in order to tap into this market, many households companies have decided to go green. In addition to tap into this ever-growing market for eco-friendly household products, the companies may also have realized the benefits that they may enjoy by growing green.  

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Bullying in the Workplace Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bullying in the Workplace - Assignment Example From this paper it is clear that organizational justice laws clearly indicate the space that an employer should give an employee and highly discourage any act that may be considered as bullying. Any act that is aimed at hurting the employee directly or indirectly and hence lead to reduced work should be reported and appropriate steps taken against the employer. In our case Kara should have reported that to the appropriate discipline for it to stop. This study highlights that wWhere workplace bullying can be taken as just a norm or a light act that will have no deep effects on the employee, at extreme cases one can experience the following;- high blood pressure, heart attack, overwhelming anxiety and panic attack, constant loss of memory and concentration, tension and constant headaches, mood swings and loss of appetite. This can highly reduce your motivation at the workplace and it is at such times that one can decide to take a retaliatory step to end it all. This can be in different forms where one can decide to quit the job and work where you will be okay working. Other people may decide to handle it in a different way where they can report the employer for the indecent approaches and intimidation.  The first factor that leads to workplace bullying is job insecurity. Team Field claims that a weak manager who is afraid of the employees will always try to impact actions that intimidate the employees. This can be curbed by cre ating good cohesion in the workplace and reducing the tension. This will stop the efforts of suppression by the boss. Female employees are 70% more often bullied than their male experts. This is mainly because of their soft nature. They should address the situation early as it could even lead to sexual harassment as it has been witnessed in some situations.  

Monday, November 18, 2019

Human Resource Management at Nokia Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Human Resource Management at Nokia - Case Study Example Same was the case with Nokia, it had to determine a particular line of business to choose and divest the rest. He declared the strategic intent of Nokia as "focused, grouped, telecom-oriented and value-added." One of the key reasons for the success was the remarkable team work of five main figures of the organization, under the dynamic leadership of Ollila. As the time passed and the group progressed, a number of other strategic changes also took place; such as, the injection of US capital in the organization, the global expansion, the product-specific strategies. Setting own standards (WAP), Nokia Venture Organization, fact-based management etc. Happiness comes never alone; it does bring some undesirable consequences as well, either in the long run or in the short run. Same is the case with Nokia; there are a number of facts which are influencing the current problems. Some of the problems faced by the Nokia group, along with their background facts are as follows. Currently, the growth rate for Nokia is 25-35 percent. Nokia was looking as a prospect of one hundred thousand employees round the world. This desire was deeply rooted in the history of the performance of Nokia. Nokia wanted to be the market leader at worldwide level. It was not possible by limiting its operations only in the Finland only. As a result, implementing the word global of the strategic intent, it started to expand beyond the borders of Finland. At that time, this strategy had a positive impact. It was so, on the basis of the fact that this expansion brought the presence of Nokia in new markets, thus it resulted in increase in sales and consequently, increase in the market share. This increase in market share was well reflected in the performance of Nokia in the initial years of 1990's. However, now further expansion would have proved to be costly in many regards. It would have been costly not only in monetary terms, but in terms of other aspects as well. The main cost in that regard would be the diseconomies of scale in terms of management resources. The more the company was expanding; it was loosing the central values, which were the reason of success in the past. Moreover, the unity of organizational culture was being lost. Lowering Prices Another challenge faced by the Nokia group now was the pressure of market forces to lower the prices. Initially, when the technology was new, the competitors were few, the prices for the mobile phones were high. Thus, it was possible to have high margins. But now all the mobile phone companies were being squeezed from the two sides. On one hand, the global price war is being in the process forcing the mobile phone companies to lower the prices. On the other hand, the more fierce competition is to attract the fresh talent. All the companies, especially the mobile phone companies require the talented young blood to work for their company and make strategies to respond to the dynamic environment. Thus, all the companies are offering the higher salaries and other financial incentives to attract those dynamic managers. As a result of this tug of war, the companies are on one hand pressurized to lower the prices, while on the other hand, they are bound to offer high salaries to retain thei r knowledge asset (human resource), this has become a real challenge for Nokia as well in current

Friday, November 15, 2019

A Failure To Communicate

A Failure To Communicate What we have here is a failure to communicate. This famous quote from the 1967 film, Cool Hand Luke, characterizes the plight of the characters in the short stories by Jhumpa Lahiri. A Temporary Matter, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, and Interpreter of Maladies, three stories in Lahiris book Interpreter of Maladies, demonstrate how a failure to communicate dooms the relationships between the characters in each story. Not every breakdown in communication is for the same reason, but it is usually neglect for the partners interests. This failure of the relationships is portrayed in these stories as due to a failure of one or both of the partners of the relationship to realize the needs and desires of the other. Lahiri portrays her characters as oblivious to the other partners feelings or self-directed, only focusing on their own situation. In Lahiris stories she lets us walk in the shoes of another person where she points out the obvious flaws that the protagonists seem to miss. The story, A Temporary Matter, begins with a notice that for five day electricity would be cut off for an hour in the neighborhood of Shukumar and Shoba, a young Indian couple. After the death of their baby, who died at birth, the two are going through depressions. They constantly avoid each other, only meeting up to have a silent dinner or have an awkward check-up on the other. The love in their relationship had become none-existent and the images of when they did love each other haunt Shukumar. Before the night of the first blackout Shukumar prepared dinner for Shoba, hoping to rekindle something between them. They had dinner by candle-light in silence, until Shoba brought up a little game where they had to tell each other something they had never told the other before. They did this every night until the first night after the blackouts. Shukumar had set up the dinner table as if the blackouts were still happening, but Shoba turned on the lights and brought up a serious subject. Sh e revealed to Shukumar that she was preparing for a life without him. Shukumar then retorted with something that was equally as hurtful. Lahiri ends the story with the two sitting at the table weeping. Lahiri uses her first story to illustrate to the reader how the neglect of one or both people in the relationship can cause it to fail; the inability to meet someones needs or make sacrifices in a relationship ultimately dooms it. By the time of the nightly power outages, they had become experts at avoiding each other, neither Shukumar nor Shoba was willing to face the other for fear of having to deal with the tragic loss of their baby (4). In their mutual depression they are both unwilling to help themselves and unable to relieve the stress they are living under, much less helping each other. They refused to let go of this tragedy, The film in his camera still contained pictures of Shoba, in the yard, when she was pregnant (15). The pictures represent a happier, idealized time in their relationship, and by keeping the pictures in his camera it shows that he is unwilling let go of this image and face the reality of the present. He cannot accept that their relationship is failing and neither can Shoba. They are unwilling and unable to move forward, dragged back into depression by the constant reminders of the death of their baby. The more they could not help themselves move on, the more they could not help the partner. Shukumar is stuck in a malaise and Shoba does everything to distract herself. They did not have the ability or the willpower to help themselves or each other; therefore they were stuck in a dying relationship. To illustrate the fact that Shukumar and Shoba are too busy wallowing in their self-centered misery Lahiri snuck in the image of the dying plant in dried up dirt in the midst of all this misery, Even though the plant was inches away from the tap, the soil was so dryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ he had to water it first before the candle would stand straight (10). The plant and soil are a metaphor for the relationship. His relationship had life and many chances, but he neglected those chances. He was unwilling to water the plant, just like he unwilling to help his relationship. Even at the end, the plant is dead but he is still using the soil. He does not even watering the plant for the plants sake, but using it for his own needs; just like when they have these intimate moments during the blackouts, he is not to keep his marriage alive, he is doing it to get his doubts and secrets off his chest, It happened over fifteen years ago. He felt relief now, having told her (17). These confessions were not meant to help mend the relationship but were used instead to relieve their conscience and ultimately ended up hurting each other, Our baby was a boyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ he promised himself that day (the day the baby was born) he would never tell Shoba, because he still loved her then (22). He knew this would hurt Shoba, but now he did it for personal gain and vengeance. Their self-centered attitude toward their relationship ultimately drove them apart. In the short story When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, the title character, Mr. Pirzada, a botanist from Dacca, India, leaves his wife and six daughters behind to study plant life in New England. Ten year old Lilia and her parents, an Indian family, invite Mr. Pirzada to come over to have dinner with them. While in the U.S. a war broke out in India and Dacca was hit. Mr. Pirzada would come every night to the house of Lilia and eat dinner with them. One of those nights in October, Lilia began to accept his constant visits, and even carved a pumpkin with him. On Halloween night Lilia was about to venture out trick-or-treating for her first time alone until Mr. Pirzada got worried and asked if he should go. Fearing losing her independence she told him not to worry, he sulked back surprised into the doorway. They do not talk again, and the family does not hear from him for months until one day they receive a letter from Mr. Pirzada telling them that he found his family and all were safe. When Mr. Pirzada finds that the communication between him and his family is flawed, he slowly opens channels with Lilias family. Mr. Pirzadas need for communication was shown Each week [when] Mr. Pirzada wrote a letter to his wife, and sent comic books for his seven daughters (24). However this proves to be an unsatisfying way of communication because it is one way communication; therefore he looks toward Lilia and her family to fill the void of the lost relationship with his daughters and his family. As Mr. Pirzada begins to go to dinners, he starts to treat Lilia more and more like his daughter. The turning point in their relationship is the carving of the pumpkin, Yes, lets carve it,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ For the first time we all gathered around the dining table (35). Before the carving of the pumpkin the height of the interaction between Mr. Pirzada and Lilia was when he gave her candy each night. They realized that they had to give up a little bit of comfort for him. He accepted the f amily because they took him in during his time of need. The whole family and Mr. Pirzada gathering around that table represented that Mr. Pirzada was part of the family. Through Mr. Pirzadas interactions, Lahiri illustrates that when one loses a line of communication, they look for it somewhere else. A relationship is doomed to failure if one of the sides of the relationship neglects the needs of the other side. On Halloween night, fearful of losing her independence, Lilia chooses to spend the night with her friend instead of spending it with Mr. Pirzada (something typical for the American culture, but difficult for Mr. Pirzada to understand), and tells him, Dont worry' (38). Disregarding Mr. Pirzadas fear that hell lose another daughter, Lilia neglects his needs and his pains. This act shows that she lacks the understanding that in order to help Mr. Pirzada she needs to sacrifice some things in order to keep her relationship with him alive. The communication between the two is broken down due to her obliviousness to the causes of this self-centered act. As such, their relationship fails: For a long time we did not hear from him. Our evenings went on as usual, with dinners in front of the news (41). Through her failure in communication, their relationship disintegrated. Throughou t the days with Lilias family, Mr. Pirzadas ties with them deepen, but when Lilia becomes oblivious to his needs, the relationship fails. In Lahiris third story Interpreter of Maladies, Mr. Kapasi is a working man in India with two jobs, an interpreter for a doctor and a tour guide. He is stuck in a dysfunctional relationship after the doctor could not prevent the death of his child. One day he is assigned the Dass, a young, irresponsible, and equally dysfunctional couple with nothing that holds them together except three children. Mr. Kapasi is made aware of this very early on in the story, with the Dass allowing their children to do whatever they want. Midway through the trip, Mr. Kapasi tells them about his job as an interpreter. Mrs. Das takes a sudden interest in Mr. Kapasi that she did not display with her husband or kids, saying that his job seems à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦so romantic (50). Mr. Kapasi becomes deeply enamored with Mrs. Das, feeling that her interest means that she loves him. He spends the rest of the story fantasizing about how their friendship would bloom, and worrying about leaving Mrs. Das or losing her interest. In order to spend more time with the family, he takes the family to the Sun Temple. Once there Mrs. Das stays in the car with Mr. Kapasi, where Mrs. Das confesses her failing relationship, her inability to get her stress off her chest, her affair, and that her youngest is not actually Mr. Dass. She asks Mr. Kapasi for a cure to make her feel better and make the pain go away, but Mr. Kapasi asks her, Is it really pain you feelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ or is it guilt? (66). She becomes angered by this and storms off to her family, where she finds that her son has been beaten by the monkeys for his food. The story ends with Mrs. Das kneeling down to take care of her child as the paper with the address of Mr. Kapasi (that she was going to use to mail him) flutters out of her bag. Lahiri brings these two dysfunctional relationships together to display the different types of neglect: neglecting another and neglecting ones self. Through these two different types of neglect, she shows that without neglect a relationship is much more functional. In the very beginning Mr. Kapasi realizes that Mr. and Mrs. Das were a bad match, just as he and his wife wereà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the bickering, the indifference, the protracted silenceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (53). Although we see Mr. Kapasi care for and try to help his depression stricken wife, The countless other ways he tried to console his wife and to keep her from crying in her sleepà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦, he knew that his wife had little regard for his careerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (53). Lahiri brings up the point that it only takes one to neglect and ruin a relationship. He began to understand that the reason he does not get along with his wife is because she neglects his feelings and help. The indifference for his job and the constant bicke ring is due to the wifes jealousy and self-centered thinking, she resented the other lives he helpedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (53). This is why Mr. Kapasi is love-stricken by Mrs. Das, When Mr. Kapasi thought once again about how she had said, romantic, the feeling of intoxication grew, because she seems to respect him and seems to makes him feel like his job is actually something worthwhile (53). The bickering, indifference, and silence was non-existent; she seemed genuinely interested in him. He feels like she realizes his troubles and does not neglect them like his wife does, therefore his affection grew. Due to the fact that his wife neglects his needs for respect, he looks for a new relationship elsewhere. However in the same story, Lahiri reveals the other side of the spectrum: how neglecting ones self can tear apart a relationship. Mrs. Das reveals her unwillingness to reach out and search for an outlet or a friend, when she tells Mr. Kapasi that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦she did not make many close friends. There was no one to confide in about [her husband] at the end of a difficult day, or share a passing thought or worry (63). Simply put, she neglected her own needs. Instead of going to the trouble of finding someone to fill this need, she decided to cheat. She felt the ability to relieve herself of some of her stress, but this is ultimately unsatisfactory. In her continuing effort to relieve stress, she tells Mr. Kapasi some of her stories and secrets. It is only after the talk with Mr. Kapasi, she realizes that she is neglecting her own needs and neglecting the needs of her family, When she whipped out the hair-brush, the slip of paper with Mr. Kapasis address on it fluttered away in the w indà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (69). She realizes that she needs a loving family and he children need her. She stops neglecting her children by the act of brushing the hair of her beaten boy. It is clear that the communication had been rekindled between her and her family from there. The paper fluttering away represents that Mr. Kapasi will be unneeded as an outlet for communication because now she has her family. She is no longer oblivious to the fact that she needs her family as an outlet. Mrs. Das realizes that due to her neglecting herself she is neglecting her family, and therefore chooses to fix her problem of communication by reviving the relationship with her family. In these three stories by Lahiri, failure of communication is caused by neglect. This is demonstrated by either one or both of the characters in the relationship acting oblivious to the other persons needs and/or is self-centered enough to not care. Oblivious neglect is the inability to recognize the needs of another and self-centered neglect is when one is unwilling to help or recognize these needs. The communication between Shukumar and Shoba breaks down due to their inability and unwillingness to help themselves or each other. The relationship between Lilia and Mr. Pirzada fails due to Lilias obliviousness to the effects of her self-centered want for independence from Mr. Pirzada and her family. The failure between Mrs. Das and her family was caused by her obliviousness to her own need for an outlet of stress, while Mr. Kapasi failing relationship is due to his wifes selfishness and unwillingness to let Mr. Kapasi help her. Each of these relationships is different, yet the common thread is communication, or the lack thereof.